From being a crucial building block of steel to nourishing plants and helping carry oxygen in your blood — iron is always busy helping sustain life on Earth. Iron is a brittle, hard substance, classified as a metal in Group 8 on the Periodic Table of the Elements. The most abundant of all metals, its pure form rapidly corrodes from exposure to moist air and high temperatures. Iron is also the fourth most common element in Earth's crust by weight and much of Earth's core is thought to be composed of iron.
Besides being commonly found on Earth, it is abundant in the sun and stars, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Iron is crucial to the survival of living organisms, according to Jefferson Lab. In plants, it plays a role in the production of chlorophyll. In animals, it is a component of hemoglobin — a protein in blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues in the body. Ninety percent of all metal that is refined these days is iron, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry.Latin Name of Gold,Iron, Copper,Sodium,Potassium,Tin,Lead,Mercury,Silver,Tungsten,Antimony,Elements
Most of it is used to make steel — an alloy of iron and carbon — which is in turn used in manufacturing and civil engineering, for instance, to make reinforced concrete.
Stainless steel, which contains at least It is used in kitchen cutlery, appliances and cookware such as stainless steel pans and skillets. The addition of other elements can provide steel with other useful qualities. For instance, nickel increases its durability and makes it more resistant to heat and acids; manganese makes it more durable, whereas tungsten helps it maintain hardness at high temperatures, according to Jefferson Lab.
Archeologists estimate that people have been using iron for more than 5, years, according to Jefferson Lab. In fact, it turns out that some of the most ancient iron known to humans literally fell from the sky.
In a study published in in the Journal of Archeological Science, researchers examined ancient Egyptian iron beads that date to around B.
Iron is mostly obtained from minerals hematite and magnetite. In smaller degrees, it can also be obtained from the minerals taconite, limonite and siderite, according to Jefferson Lab.
Iron has four different allotropic forms, which means that it has four different structural forms in which atoms bond in different patterns, according to Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Those forms are called ferrites, known as alpha which is magneticbeta, gamma and omega. Iron is an important nutrient in our diet. Iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency, can cause anemia and fatigue that affects the ability to perform physical work in adults.
It can also impair memory and other mental function in teens, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Women who have iron deficiency while pregnant are at an increased risk of having small and early babies, the CDC warns.
There are two types of dietary iron: heme iron and non-heme iron. Heme iron — which is the more readily absorbed type of iron — is found in meat, fish and poultry, whereas non-heme iron — which is also absorbed but to a lesser extent than heme iron — is found in both plant foods such as spinach, kale and broccoli and meat, according to the American Red Cross. People absorb up to 30 percent of heme iron, compared with 2 to 10 percent of non-heme iron, the ARC reports, adding that foods rich in vitamin C such as tomatoes or citrus fruits can help absorb people absorb non-heme iron.
Iron has been the subject of numerous medical studies, some of which show that high levels of iron in the blood may in fact be linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular problems. Ferritin is a type of protein that stores iron, while the ferritin test measures the amount of iron in your blood. In a study of more than 1, Finnish men ages 42 to 60 years, published in published in the journal Circulation, researchers found a link between high levels of iron and increased risk of heart attack.
In a more recent studypublished online in January in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers found that heme iron, found in meat, increased the risk for coronary heart disease by 57 percent, but no such association was found between non-heme iron and coronary heart disease risk. Interestingly, recent research has also linked the accumulation of iron in the brain to Alzheimer's disease.
In a study published in August in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, researchers found that the amount of iron in the hippocampus — an area of the brain associated with the formation of memories — was increased and associated with tissue damage in the hippocampus area in people with Alzheimer's disease, but not in healthy older people.
Iron deficiencies have also been linked with depression, according to a study published in the Journal of Psychiatric Research by a group of Australian researchers who were trying to find a link between genetics, iron levels and depression, especially with teenagers.
The researchers found that although there is a link between iron levels in the bloodstream and measure of depression, there is no evidence for a genetic relationship between the two.Why don't fictional characters say "goodbye" when they hang up a phone? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.
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If you know the answer to this question, please register to join our limited beta program and start the conversation right now! Related Questions Asked in Gold and Precious Metals To which group name does the following fall iron copper gold silver and iron? Asked in Elements and Compounds What is the group or family name of antimony? It is in the 5a group or family. Asked in Elements and Compounds What is the family and group name of zinc?
The family name is Transition Metal. The group number is Asked in Science Does iron have a group name? Iron belongs to the transition state elements. Asked in Periodic Table What is iron periodic table family name? Asked in Periodic Table What is Group 8 on the periodic table? Group 8 on the periodic table is known as the iron family.
It contains elements such as Iron, Ruthenium, Osmium and Hassium. Asked in Metal and Alloys Why the group of iron cobalt and nickel have no families?
They ARE a family the ferro-magnetics. Asked in Elements and Compounds The family name and group number of carbon? Carbon is in group 14, which is the carbon family. Asked in Chemistry What is the family name for group 2 elements? The family name is 2A or IIA. Answer Improvement 2A is really the same thing as group 2 above in the question. The family name for this group is "alkaline earth metals". Asked in Family Is indium family name the carbon family? Indium is in group 13 on the periodic table of the elements.
This family or group is called the Boron Group. Asked in Chemistry, Earth Sciences What is iron familys name? Iron is a group 8 element, this group doesn't have any particular name. Iron compounds are most often Ferric or Ferrous, which is derived from Iron's Latin name Ferrum hence the atomic symbol Fe. Yes, the eighth group, which is the Iron family, has been discovered. Asked in Periodic Table What group name is chlorine in on the periodic table?
The group name is halogen family. It belongs to groupIn chemistry and physicsthe iron group refers to elements that are in some way related to iron ; mostly in period row 4 of the periodic table. The term has different meanings in different contexts. In chemistry, the term is largely obsolete, but it often means ironcobaltand nickelalso called the iron triad ;  or, sometimes, other elements that resemble iron in some chemical aspects.
In astrophysics and nuclear physicsthe term is still quite common, and it typically means those three plus chromium and manganese —five elements that are exceptionally abundant, both on Earth and elsewhere in the universe, compared to their neighbors in the periodic table.
In chemistry, "iron group" used to refer to iron and the next two elements in the periodic tablenamely cobalt and nickel. These three comprised the "iron triad".
The similarities in chemistry were noted by Adolph Strecker in In the traditional methods of qualitative inorganic analysis, the iron group consists of those cations which. The iron group in astrophysics is the group of elements from chromium to nickelwhich are substantially more abundant in the universe than those that come after them — or immediately before them — in order of atomic number.
At the end of their lives, once other fuels have been exhausted, such stars can under a brief phase of " silicon burning ". All of these nuclear reactions are exothermic : the energy that is released partially offsets the gravitational contraction of the star.
However, the series ends at 56 28 Nias the next reaction in the series. Nickel is unstable with respect to beta decayand the final stable product of silicon burning is 56 26 Fe. It is often incorrectly stated that iron is exceptionally common because it is the most stable of all the nuclides.
In fact, there are several stable nuclides of elements from chromium to nickel around the top of the stability curve, accounting for their relative abundance in the universe.
The nuclides which are not on the direct alpha-process pathway are formed by the s-processthe capture of slow neutrons within the star. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The iron group in the periodic table. Green, ed. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Based on: Wapstra, A. B1—5 : 1—6, Bibcode : PhLB. Data tables.
Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Archived from the original PDF on Previous Element Manganese. Next Element Cobalt. What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word iron.
Iron's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for iron, ferrum. Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using iron for at least years. Iron is the cheapest and one of the most abundant of all metals, comprising nearly 5. Iron is primarily obtained from the minerals hematite Fe 2 O 3 and magnetite Fe 3 O 4. Huge amounts of iron are used to make steel, an alloy of iron and carbon.
Steel typically contains between 0. The addition of other elements can give steel other useful properties. Small amounts of chromium improves durability and prevents rust stainless steel ; nickel increases durability and resistance to heat and acids; manganese increases strength and resistance to wear; molybdenum increases strength and resistance to heat; tungsten retains hardness at high temperatures; and vanadium increases strength and springiness.
Steel is used to make paper clips, skyscrapers and everything in between. In addition to helping build the world around us, iron helps keep plants and animals alive. Iron plays a role in the creation of chlorophyll in plants and is an essential part of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen within red blood cells.
Iron sulfate FeSO 4 is used to treat the blood disease anemia. Estimated Crustal Abundance : 5. Number of Stable Isotopes : 4 View all isotope data. Electron Shell Configuration :. Iron Previous Isotopes Next. Say what? Iron is pronounced as EYE-ern.
History and Uses : Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using iron for at least years. Citation and linking information For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon.Why don't fictional characters say "goodbye" when they hang up a phone?
All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Wiki User Iron is in the 8th group on the periodic table and is categorized as a transition metal. Related Questions Asked in Gold and Precious Metals To which group name does the following fall iron copper gold silver and iron?
Asked in Chemistry What group is iron in and uses of iron? Iron is placed in the group 8 of the periodic table of Mendeleev; for the iron applications see the list below. Asked in Periodic Table What group is iron in periodic table?
Iron is placed in group-8 in the periodic table. Its symbol is Fe. Asked in Periodic Table Period and group for iron? Period 4 Group 8. Asked in Science Does iron have a group name? Iron belongs to the transition state elements. Asked in Periodic Table Where would iron and copper be on the periodic table? Iron - group 8, period 4 Copper - group 11, period 4.Your body is dependent on a mineral called iron for the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body. If you have an iron deficiency due to a poor diet or a medical condition, you are likely to feel lethargic and weak.
An iron supplement may be necessary to treat chronic deficiency, but you should work with your physician to choose an appropriate form of iron for your unique circumstances. Although supplementation may be necessary in some cases, a healthy diet is the best source of iron. Dietary iron is classified as either heme -- coming from animal sources -- or nonheme iron. Heme iron is better absorbed, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements, but you should include both varieties in your diet 1.
Over-the-counter iron supplements come in two preparations: ferrous iron salts and ferric iron 1. Ferrous salts are the better option as an oral supplement for two reasons 2. The salts are more readily available and they are better digested and absorbed, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements 1. Since absorption through the digestive tract is a problem with ferric iron, typically, ferric supplements are given as an intramuscular or intravenous injection 1. Ferric carboxymaltose, sodium ferric gluconate and iron dextran are three types of ferric iron injections.
If you look through the supplements at the pharmacy, you are likely to see three different types of ferrous iron: ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous gluconate 1. They differ in the amount of elemental iron -- or the amount of iron in the supplement that can be readily absorbed. Ferrous sulfate is the least expensive and most common of the three and contains 65 milligrams of elemental iron per milligrams.
Ferrous fumarate has the highest concentration of elemental iron at milligrams per milligrams of supplement, and ferrous gluconate has the least at 35 milligrams in a milligram tablet. Several groups of people are at risk for a deficiency because of an inability to absorb dietary iron properly, a need for additional iron or the loss of iron 1. These groups include:. Since your body does not excrete much iron, iron toxicity is a serious risk associated with supplements 1.
Do not take an iron supplement before consulting your physician 2. Heme iron is better absorbed, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements, but you should include both varieties in your diet. If you look through the supplements at the pharmacy, you are likely to see three different types of ferrous iron: ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous gluconate.
Carolyn Robbins began writing in It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table. It is by mass the most common element on Earthforming much of Earth's outer and inner core.
It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. In its metallic state, iron is rare in the Earth's crustlimited to deposition by meteorites. Humans started to master that process in Eurasia only about BCE [ not verified in body ]and the use of iron tools and weapons began to displace copper alloysin some regions, only around BCE.
That event is considered the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. In the modern worldiron alloys, such as steelinoxcast iron and special steels are by far the most common industrial metals, because of their mechanical properties and low cost. Pristine and smooth pure iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts readily with oxygen and water to give brown to black hydrated iron oxidescommonly known as rust. Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more volume than the metal and thus flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion.
The body of an adult human contains about 4 grams 0. These two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolismrespectively oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles. To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.
Iron shares many properties of other transition metalsincluding the other group 8 elementsruthenium and osmium. Iron also forms many coordination compounds ; some of them, such as ferroceneferrioxalateand Prussian bluehave substantial industrial, medical, or research applications. The first three forms are observed at ordinary pressures.
The physical properties of iron at very high pressures and temperatures have also been studied extensively, because of their relevance to theories about the cores of the Earth and other planets. It is supposed to have an orthorhombic or a double hcp structure.
The melting and boiling points of iron, along with its enthalpy of atomizationare lower than those of the earlier 3d elements from scandium to chromiumshowing the lessened contribution of the 3d electrons to metallic bonding as they are attracted more and more into the inert core by the nucleus;  however, they are higher than the values for the previous element manganese because that element has a half-filled 3d subshell and consequently its d-electrons are not easily delocalized.
This same trend appears for ruthenium but not osmium. For greater pressures, published data as of still varies by tens of gigapascals and over a thousand kelvin. Thus a macroscopic piece of iron will have a nearly zero overall magnetic field.
Application of an external magnetic field causes the domains that are magnetized in the same general direction to grow at the expense of adjacent ones that point in other directions, reinforcing the external field.
This effect is exploited in devices that needs to channel magnetic fields, such as electrical transformersmagnetic recording heads, and electric motors.
Impurities, lattice defectsor grain and particle boundaries can "pin" the domains in the new positions, so that the effect persists even after the external field is removed -- thus turning the iron object into a permanent magnet.
Similar behavior is exhibited by some iron compounds, such as the ferrites and the mineral magnetitea crystalline form of the mixed iron II,III oxide Fe 3 O 4 although the atomic-scale mechanism, ferrimagnetismis somewhat different.
Pieces of magnetite with natural permanent magnetization lodestones provided the earliest compasses for navigation. Particles of magnetite were extensively used in magnetic recording media such as core memoriesmagnetic tapesfloppiesand disksuntil they were replaced by cobalt -based materials.
Iron has four stable isotopes : 54 Fe 5. The nuclide 54 Fe theoretically can undergo double electron capture to 54 Cr, but the process has never been observed and only a lower limit on the half-life of 3. In the last decade, advances in mass spectrometry have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally occurring variations in the ratios of the stable isotopes of iron. Much of this work is driven by the Earth and planetary science communities, although applications to biological and industrial systems are emerging.
In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut, a correlation between the concentration of 60 Ni, the granddaughter of 60 Fe, and the abundance of the stable iron isotopes provided evidence for the existence of 60 Fe at the time of formation of the Solar System. Possibly the energy released by the decay of 60 Fe, along with that released by 26 Alcontributed to the remelting and differentiation of asteroids after their formation 4.
The abundance of 60 Ni present in extraterrestrial material may bring further insight into the origin and early history of the Solar System. The most abundant iron isotope 56 Fe is of particular interest to nuclear scientists because it represents the most common endpoint of nucleosynthesis.